Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center
at the Center for Special Studies (C.S.S)
June 14, 2005
Antisemitism in the Turkish Media (Part III): Targeting Turkey's Jewish Citizens
The Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI)
The following is the third report in a series on the issue of antisemitism in the Turkish media.1This phenomena is directed not only against the Jews in general, it also targets Turkey's Jewish citizens, in the form of multiple attacks on Turkey's Chief Rabbi; insults to and offensive characterization of Turkey's Jews; and accusations of disloyalty, espionage, and treason. The media frequently accuse Turkish Jews of destroying the Ottoman Empire, carrying out the 'genocide' of Armenians, hatching sinister plots against Turkey, establishing a secular 'anti-Islamic' regime in Turkey; also blaming Jews for being rich and influential is often seen.
Publications by the Islamic terrorist organization IBDA-C,2which claimed responsibility for the November 15, 2003 bombings of two Istanbul synagogues, circulate freely in Turkey; dozens of pages in each issue are dedicated to virulently antisemitic literature. 3Books such as Mein Kampf,The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, and The International Jew are high on Turkish bestseller lists, and are displayed prominently in the front of bookstores.
The following report also focuses on some of the intellectuals and liberal journalists in Turkey who have spoken out against this wave of antisemitism.
"Judaism is Synonymous With Treason"
Columnist Fahri Guven wrote in the Islamist daily Milli Gazete:4" […] The Ottomans saved the Jews from the hands of Christians, who murdered them along with the Muslims in Endulus [Muslim Spain]. When Russia and Hungary persecuted the Jews, again the Ottomans saved them. The Muslim Turks rescued Jews yet again, from the hands of Hitler, who was himself a hidden Jew […]. From the beginning, the Ottomans showed hospitality, seemingly even by allotting the best homes to the Jews – along the Bosphorus, in Istanbul's most luxurious area.
"And, characteristic of their savage, treacherous [nature], in return they [the Jews] first overthrew Sultan Abdulhamid and destroyed the Ottomans;5[then], like insects, they ate away at the Ottoman [Empire]; and as if this were not enough, they stabbed the Muslim Turkish soldiers in Palestine in the back.
"'Judaism' is synonymous with 'treason' […] They [the Jews] even betrayed God […] When God told them to bow their heads while entering Al-Quds [ Jerusalem], they entered with their heads up. The prophets sent to them, such as Zachariah and Isaiah, were murdered by the Jews […] In fact, no amount of pages or lines would be sufficient to explain the Koranic chapters and our Lord Prophet's [Muhammad's] words that tell us of the betrayals of the Jews. […]"
"Here is the Real Jew!"
Columnist for the ultra-nationalist daily Ortadogu Selcuk Duzgun, in an article titled "Here is the Real Jew," wrote:6 "Salamon [a Jewish name often used in a derogatory way] is on his deathbed. He asks his wife about each member of his family and wants to know if they are present. When the wife assures him that all his loved ones are beside him, he is angered and shouts at them for leaving the shop unattended.
"This is a clear example of what the real Jew is. While we read and laugh at our jokes about the Jews, they [the Jews] are enjoying themselves by fooling the entire world.
"[…] Oh my naive people – you have elevated so many of these [Jews], and you have given an identity to so many [who had none]. You have saved, protected, and fed so many of them!... […] and they have created the [country's] agenda and continued their march to [their] 'Promised Land.' While we were calling them Masons, Sabbateans, Rotarians, etc., they had the privilege of ruling our country. Whatever name we call them, we always are faced with the truth that they are the 'JEWS.'
"[…] We are surrounded. Wherever we look we see traitors. Wherever we turn we see impure, false converts. Whichever stone you turn over, there is a 'JEW' under it. And we keep thinking to ourselves: 'Hitler did not do enough to these Jews.'[…]"
Turkey 's Chief Rabbi Attacked, Reviled By Media
On August 17, 2004, the Islamist daily Anadolu'da Vakit, popularly known as Vakit, published a column by Abdurrahim Karakoc that lauded Hitler for his "foresight" and for "purging the bloodthirsty, swindling Jews" and also praised Osama bin Laden.7
In February 2005, the publication of the daily in Germany was banned by the German government because of its antisemitic incitement and Holocaust denial. The Turkish press reacted with attacks on and smears against the German government, particularly German Interior Minister Otto Schily.
On March 2, 2005, German Ambassador to Ankara, Wolf Ruthart Born, sent a letter to Turkish Press Council President Oktay Eksi, of the centrist, widely circulated daily Hurriyet, who had called Germany's ban on Vakit "the murder of the law." In it, Ambassador Born said that Vakit 's articles were 'inciting and disgusting' and that it would be better for the Turkish Press Council to focus on these inappropriate publications instead of giving legal advice to the German Interior Minister. Since then, the German government has approached Turkish Interior Minister Aksu to protest against Vakit 's ongoing attacks on Germany and its government.
At a May 18, 2005 press conference, German Interior Minister Schily said: "As you know, Anadolu'da Vakit was banned because of its virulent antisemitism. Then it began publishing articles attacking me and, lately, Prime Minister Schroeder. The Turkish government must also concern itself with the Vakit newspaper. […] This paper has depicted me, and also our Prime Minister, as neo-Nazis […] If the Turkish government does not have the necessary laws, they should create them."8
Following the August 17, 2004 publication of Karakoc's article in Vakit, the Turkish Chief Rabbinate sent a letter of complaint to several liberal columnists in Turkish newspapers, prompting a campaign of daily attacks and revilement against Turkish Chief Rabbi Izak Haleva by journalists and politicians who write primarily for Vakit.
The following are only a few sample excerpts from this campaign:
The Chief Rabbi must condemn Israel
On August 26, 2004, the headline of Vakit's lead story read: "The Chief Rabbi who criticizes '[free] thought' is indifferent to Sharon's cruelty. Turkey's Chief Rabbi, who criticized our writer Abdurrahim Karakoc in a letter he sent to some columnists, has never said anything about Israel's massacres that have turned into 'genocide.'"
On August 27, Vakit's headline, and a report by Kenan Kiran in the paper, read: "Still not a sound from the rabbi. Chief Rabbi Haleva, who sent a letter to journalists targeting our writer Karakoc, has not answered our questions for yet another day.
"The Chief Rabbi's letter prompted many reactions […]: "AKP MP from Manisa, Huseyin Tanriverdi, said: '[…] [The Chief Rabbi's] attitude that is disrespectful of free conscience is wrong. […] Those who call themselves 'men,' and especially the faithful, cannot be silent about the savagery in Palestine. Mr. Haleva must condemn Israel's inhuman massacres.
"MP Tanriverdi added: 'In the face of the existing barbarism and massacres, Mr. Karakoc has sought to stop this human tragedy by reminding [us] of historical facts. […] Mr. Karakoc has made very reasonable observations.'
"Chief Rabbi Haleva stated that he would send a written reply to [ Vakit 's] questions. Although two days have passed, the following questions remain unanswered: 'Do you consider Hitler cruel? Do you also consider Sharon cruel, knowing the world media's decision that the massacres he commits are similar to what Hitler did to the Jews? Do you condone the Israeli soldiers' aggression against Palestinian civilians?'"
Rabbi Haleva, if you do not stop Sharon, anti-Jewish voices may turn into anti-Jewish actions!
On August 29, Vakit 's Ilhan Toprak reported: "Turkish Health Workers Union President Mustafa Basoglu criticized Turkey's Chief Rabbi [in a letter he sent to him] for being disturbed at Karakoc's comparing Hitler and Sharon. […] [The letter read:] 'As a religious leader, Izak Haleva must make all the necessary efforts to prevent Sharon's negative attitudes […] If Sharon […] is not stopped, the voices being raised against the Jews […] might turn into actions. To prevent that, the Chief Rabbi must stop Sharon […]'
More Turkish politicians join in: Chief Rabbi must apologize
On August 28, the front page of Vakit read: "[...] Politicians are reacting to Chief Rabbi Haleva: AKP MP from Kahramanmaras and former President of Turkish Writers Association Atilla Maras said it was a crime for Turkey's Chief Rabbi to send letters of complaint to journalists against Abdurrahim Karakoc. MP Maras added: ' Turkey's Chief Rabbi Izak Haleva must condemn Israel and Sharon' […]
"Nurettin Aktas, AKP Member of Parliament from Gaziantep, said that Turkey's Chief Rabbi had no reason to be disturbed by Karakoc's article, 'Israel is perpetrating state terrorism […] The Chief Rabbi […] must warn Sharon and apologize to the Palestinian people. The world condemns Sharon, just like they condemned Hitler.'"
"Chief Rabbi, the Commander"
On August 29, in an article titled "Chief Rabbi, the Commander," Vakit columnist Huseyin Uzmez joined in: "[…] Why is it that one of the [Turkish] authorities does not come forward and say: 'You, [Chief Rabbi,] come here! Haven't you learned when and how to submit a complaint? How dare you cross your limits?'" […]
Chief Rabbi beats the drums!
On August 31, Hasan Karakaya added another article to the attack on Turkey's Chief Rabbi: "[…] It was clear that…the mallet beating these drums [the six journalists to whom Rabbi Haleva wrote] was in the hands of that [person], whatever his name is: Helava [derived from the Turkish word for 'sewage' or 'toilet'] or 'Haleva.'"
Turkish columnist: "Chief Rabbi's synagogues are Zionist bases"
On September 2, 2004, Vakit columnist Nurettin Sirin wrote: "[…] Firstly, the Chief Rabbi who uses his synagogues as Zionist bases must learn that no Jew has the right to teach a lesson on 'human rights' to [us], the children of the Ottomans. These [Jews], who fled Spain's massacres and found shelter thanks to Ottoman tolerance, have carried out nothing but treason and plots on Ottoman territory, and have [always] carried out the ugly designs of Zionism on this [Turkish] land.
"These people [the Jews] […] tried to 'Israelize' the Ottoman [Empire] from within, carrying out their treachery through some Zionist organizations. With the help of Masonic lodges, Lions and Rotary clubs, and political, academic, economic, media, and bureaucratic co-conspirators, they have woven a 'web of Semitism' on this Islamic geography.
"'Semitism' in this country [ Turkey] is the name of 'treason' against Islam and Muslims, and against all our national and moral values. […] Documenting this treachery is as easy as proving the laws of gravity. In face of this truth, the Chief Rabbinate and their allies' cries of 'antisemitism' and their fake claim to innocence are laughable.
"[…] Has he [the Chief Rabbi] ever condemned the genocide by the Jews, that he [dares] to talk of the so-called persecutions of the Jews? […]
"[…] It is these so-called innocent Jews who are responsible for the loss of our Ottoman [Empire], for the trampling of our sanctity, for the hanging of our forefathers, for the humiliation of all our beliefs, and for the ban on our women's covering [as demanded by Islam].
"[…] [Karakoc's] article will be an important contribution to the questioning of [the Jews'] sinister plots, satanic steps, and historic treason in our country. When the masks of these so-called innocent people and groups fall, we will clearly see the monster behind them.
"[…] At this opportunity, I would like to also place my signature under the article titled 'Foresight, Israel Shameless' written by my brother and friend Karakoc, and to express my willingness to be judged [as I stand] right next to him. God bless your pen and your heart, brother Karakoc… […]"
For more examples of the attacks on and revilement of Turkish Chief Rabbi Izak Haleva see Appendix I.
Turkish Columnist Warns: Last Chance for the Jews
Columnist for the mainstream secular liberal daily Aksam, Sakir Suter, wrote:9"In Turkey, there are 'sworn enemies' of the Jews. [But] Jews also have some friends, even if they are not 'sworn [friends]' […] Quite a few people [in Turkey] are pleased by their friendship sorrows and joys.
"Today, however, we are on the verge of saying 'there WERE' [in the with Turkish citizens of Jewish descent. There are some common [shared] historical past].
We will either cross-out this friendship or continue with a 'bad taste.'
"In Turkey, there is a big 'maybe' hanging in the minds of [even] those who [until now] did not see the Jews as 'enemies.'
"They [the Turkish Jews] have an obligation to show us that they are distanced from the terror that resulted in the death of thousands in Turkey [due to terrorism activity by the PKK, a separatist Kurdish organization]... and that the Jews are not 'plotting' against us [the Turks] together with the [Kurdish] elements in Northern Iraq, who definitely cannot be our friends.
"[…] The burden of proof is on […] Tel Aviv to show that they [the Jews] are not playing out any Israeli 'anti-Turkish plots in Northern Iraq,' as reported even by the foreign media. Instead of providing the required proof, making nasty threat-like comments against Turkey is ugly.
"[…] If they [the Jews] claim to be real friends of Turkey, the burden is not on the Turks, who have proven their friendship, but on the Jews, whose 'hostility' we are discussing.
"We, on our part, are offering one last chance before officially and openly declaring that the Jews are our 'enemy.'
"[…][Now] we have reached such a juncture that... millions in Turkey are all too eager to pour out to the streets and cry out: 'Death to Zionism!'... 'You [Jew]! Let us hear you [reply]!' 'You must either prove your innocence… or apologize [immediately] to the Turks, who took you for a 'friend' for over 500 years!"
Columnist Suat Gun wrote in the nationalist daily Once Vatan:10 "Upon the discovery of an Israeli mole in the Pentagon, I remembered the book by the late General Cevat Rifat Atilhan, titled Suzi Liberman, the Jewish Spy…
"Cevat Rifat Atilhan was an officer, much valued by great Ataturk. His units fought in important […] battles [during WWI]. When the Arab-Israel war started in 1948, he joined that front with the 300 volunteers he gathered, and was successful in capturing a Jewish settlement from the enemy.
"Cevat Rifat Atilhan is an unequalled patriot, who informed the Turkish public of the 'Jewish threat.'[…]
"This present day espionage [in the U.S.] is an operation undertaken by the Jews […] who like a cancer virus have spread everywhere, destroying the American governmental system. In reality, the U.S. has been infected with a 'Jewish cancer,' and the Jews will bring about its death, demise, or destruction [whichever term you choose].…"
"Politics are Committing Adultery With Our Honor"
Liberal columnist Ayse Onal, formerly of the secular, Kemalist daily Aksam and who writes now for the Star Gazete, wrote an article protesting the Turkish media's accusation of the Jews for every disaster in the world. She opens with quotes by antisemitic writers:11
"335 children and teachers were murdered in Beslan by the Jews. The barbarism of 9/11 was a Jewish plot. Turkish society and family values are being destroyed by the Jews. It is the Jews who are cutting off heads in Iraq. They [the Jews] are so blinded [with hatred] that in order to conceal the Jewish finger [role] in all of that, they sometimes butcher [their fellow] Jews as well. It was them [the Jews] who bombed their own synagogues. And when their own families died, they shed false tears.
"The Jews are like a punching bag. Hit [them] and hit [them], as much as you can… Punch [them] as much as you want, with no fear, shame, respect or sense of boundaries… In any event, only about 15,000 Jews remain [in Turkey], and they have no voice to be heard.
"The Jews are a convenient, living shield for all immorality, all murders, savagery, and lies… If you place a Jew where there is barbarism or fraud, you have solved the problem…
"And knowing too well what would await them, nobody has the possibility, nor the courage, to ask, 'Where are the human rights and freedoms, values of equality, principles of non-discrimination with regard to religion, race, and ethnicity?' If the honor [of the citizens] is indeed under the protection of the [Turkish] constitution, this means that according to the State, Jews are either not human, or not citizens.[…]
A Nauseating Synagogue in the Land of the Prophets
In the Islamist daily Milli Gazete, Burhan Bozgeyik wrote:12"[…] We went to the city of Şanliurfa to visit friends and relatives. Before entering the city, we went directly to the garden of the revered Hajji Halil's father. We performed our noon prayers there. Our young brothers went all out to show us hospitality. We were in the place where […] Ibrahim Aleyhisselam [Abraham] lived. […]
"After food and conversation, we started thinking about our next stop, Adana. But, since we had come this far, we had to first visit the cave where Halilullah [Abraham] was born […] So we went to the Dergah Mosque, and there we performed our mid-afternoon prayers.
"I have told you all this as an introduction to our real subject: On the way back, our guide said, 'Just take a look here, look at this synagogue.' We looked: it was an impressive building. "This entire area was expropriated; this park is going to be expanded so that the synagogue will be prominent,' he said.13
"When we saw the synagogue, we lost all our joy. It wiped away the vision of the beautiful garden, the magnificent banquet, the mosque, the shrine […] Instead, this frightful building stood in front of our eyes like a ghost. What was a synagogue doing in this 'Land of the Prophets?' […] Where did this 'Jew-love' come from?
"[…] Frankly, we were extremely nauseated when we saw the synagogue. The food we had eaten stuck in our throats like a knot […]"
Respect for Christians and Jews Harms This Country
In another article, Burhan Bozgeyikwrote:14 "Some people in this country are mistaken in how they treat Christians and Jews. Such mistakes are harming not only the perpetrators, but also all the young Muslims of this land, and directly or indirectly, this country.
"Heading the list of these mistakes is the respect and reverence shown to Christians and Jews […] It is a mistake to include them in the protocol of meetings, to let them speak, to applaud them, to quote their words in the newspapers […]. It is not just wrong, it is a frighteningly grave mistake […]
"It is a mistake for so-called professors, writers, thinkers, and famous intellectuals to make 'sympathetic' statements about Christians and Jews. Particularly, to say that 'they too will go to heaven' is an even bigger mistake. […] Christians and Jews, who have rejected our Prophet and refuse to recite 'Mohammed is the Messenger of God' belong forever in Hell.
"In the eyes of God, there is only one religion, and that is Islam […] There is only one book, and that is the Koran. […]
"For so-called 'dignitaries' to present Christianity and Judaism as 'godly religions' is terribly wrong. […]
Let Us Be Wary of Becoming Neo-Nazis
Columnist Mehmet Barlas of the mainstream, large circulation Turkish daily Sabah criticized the antisemitism in the Turkish media:15"[…] Being 'European' implies that all the people and the 'media' accept a [particular] philosophy. Three days ago, the European Council Against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) published a report on Turkey which included the following criticism of the Turkish media:
"Antisemitic propaganda continues to be published by some Turkish media organs. Identifying the Turkish Jewish Community […] with the policies of the State of Israel is frequent in the Turkish media."
"All those who follow world developments know what this statement means. Publication of materials that incite and generate hatred and hostility against a race or an ethnic group is now considered a 'crime against humanity.' The concept of crime is not only valid for bureaucrats and politicians. For example, Nigerian journalists who engaged in similar practice against their country's minorities were convicted last year by the international court. It is becoming dangerous for the members of the Turkish media to engage in racism as they hide behind the assertion, 'I'm commenting on Middle East politics.'
"Those who make remarks such as 'anyway, he's a Sabbatean, we know his [real] identity' may cause serious harm to their country and their profession and bring serious problems upon themselves.
"Those who aspire to be patriots, nationalists, or Arab sympathizers can [easily] turn into Neo-Nazis.
"[…] We in the media should refrain from using expressions which do not fit the European pattern. This kind of behavior is 'shameful,' even when not 'criminal.' […]
IBDA-C Publication: "The Best Jew is a Dead Jew!"
Aylik is a monthly magazine published in Turkey by the Great East Islamic Raiders Front, IBDA-C, which is the terrorist organization which claimed responsibility for the November 15, 2003 attacks on Istanbul's two main synagogues that killed 26 and wounded dozens. Turkish authorities have stated that this organization has ties to Al-Qa'ida. The April 2005 edition of Aylik includes 18 pages of antisemitic propaganda.
The first article concerning the Jews, titled "The Internal and External Enemy: Yahudi" was written by Salih Izzet Erdis, also known as Salih Mirzabeyoglu, who is the 'architect' or 'commander' of the organization and is presently serving a life term in a Turkish prison. The following are few excerpts from his article:
"[…] The race that bred in evil and treachery, creating the real Jew, and the one that has become a curse to the world, is the Jew…
"[…] The one who blamed the Prophet Jesus [for blasphemy], who came from their own [kind], and whom they sold to the Romans […], that lowly treacherous one, is (Judah), the Jew…
"The one who later distorted the belief of Jesus and made up the lie and the insult that he is the son of God is ( St. Paul) the Jew…
"[…] The ones who, through planning and plotting, brought to Turkey adultery, immorality, and destruction, who built Israel right at the heart of Islam and next to the oil and other natural resources […] as a tiny model of their secret [world] empire…
"Like an octopus hiding its tentacles under its belly, watching [for opportunities] to grab Iraq with one arm, Syria with another arm, and with others Kuwait, Hijaz [Saudi Arabia], Egypt, and Libya; they who need a world tragedy in order to carry out their aims […] In short, those who stir the witches' cauldron to melt all civilizations within it are Jews… It is only the Jew, always the Jew…"
The second article, which was prepared for publication by Unsal Zor, is titled, "Cursed Until Eternity": "The rabbis falsified the Torah [which Muslims believe otherwise would be identical to the Koran]. They concealed the power and greatness of God and presented their own race instead as the ' Chosen' One…
"[…] It is always said that the accusations against the Jews were all 'libels.' None of those [accusations] were 'libels.'
"[…] Their important book the Talmud commands hating all those who are not Jews, and when possible acting by [killing] them. […]
"An important Talmud writer, Maimonides, has said: '[…] It is prohibited to save the life of anyone who is not a Jew […] It is forbidden for a Jewish doctor to heal a non-Jew, even if he is paid to do so – unless not treating the non-Jew would cause a public reaction which might harm the Jews.
" Haham [Rabbi] Sofer has said about the Muslims and Christians in the Ottoman Empire: 'They are believers in other gods; therefore, they must be killed using indirect methods.' […]
"The Talmud says: 'If a Jew finds a lost object and realizes that it belonged to a Jew, he is obligated to return it. But if the owner is not a Jew, then it is imperative not to give it back. […] Dishonesty is acceptable towards a non-Jew. […]
" Yahudi [Jew] the thief![…] These few examples provide a glimpse of the 'Jewish ideology.' […] If the Talmud says all these things, then we say: 'Nobody should shed tears and mucus, or mourn when a Jew dies. The best Jew is a dead Jew!' […]"
The next article in the magazine, "Why Antisemitism?" by Cumali Dalkilic, declares Jews the 'enemy' of the Turks, of Islam, and of the entire world. Jews are alleged to have a 'disgusting nature' and are defined as 'the people eternally cursed by God and His prophets, who are not wanted by anyone and thrown out of every place.'
The article quotes many pages from Hitler's Mein Kampf and shows admiration for Hitler, calling him 'a hero', 'a rare mind' that grasped the ['real'] meaning of the Jew and the Jewish problem, 'a true statesman to whom no other can stand up.' The article, which also includes excerpts from the notorious Protocols of the Elders of Zion, ends with Holocaust denial, cuts down the number of Jewish victims from millions to 130,000 to 150,000, and called on its readers to read and understand Hitler through his own writings instead of believing the 'historic fraud' of the Jews [that] 'prostitutionalizes' the conscience.
The final three articles on the Jews exhibit the most virulent demonization of the Jews. One ends with expressing satisfaction at the new rise in anti-Jewish sentiment in Turkey and credits IBDA and its leader Salih Mirzabeyoglu with this 'achievement.' The last sentence reads: "This is the 'real' and 'final' place for settling accounts with the Jews."
Another, titled "The Cifit's [filthy Jews']16 Castle" attacks the Donme,17claiming that they are not 'real Muslims' or real 'Turks,' but 'filthy Jews' under cover, and that they are responsible for the present secularism in Turkey, as well as for all the wrongdoings in the world. The article also states that "the only barrier before the filthy Jews is the 'wall of Islam.'"
List of additional articles attacking Turkey's Chief Rabbi Izak Haleva:
Vakit, August 26, 2004, "Dedicated to the Rabbi." Front page headline.
Vakit, August 27, 2004, "Chief Rabbi's Musketeers (1)," A. Karakoc.
Vakit, August 28, 2004, "Chief Rabbi's Musketeers (2)," A. Karakoc.
Vakit, August 28, 2004, "Haleva Must Apologize." Headline.
Vakit, August 29, 2004 , "Chief Rabbi's Musketeers (3)," A. Karakoc.
Vakit, August 29, 2004, "The Sharons and the [Media] Barons, Shoulder to Shoulder," Hasan Karakaya.
Vakit, August 29, 2004, "Hitler or Sharon [Same Thing]," Ilhan Toprak.
Vakit, August 31, 2004, "Beat the drums!" Hasan Karakaya.
Tercuman,Dunden Bugune, August 31, 2004, "The Tactical Mistake of the Chief Rabbi and his Friends," Serdar Arseven.
Vakit, August 31, 2004, "Has the Human Rights Organization Given up on Freedom of Thought?" Ali Karahasanoglu.
Vakit, September 1, 2004, "Listen to the cries…," Hasan Karakaya.
Vakit, September 9, 2004,"Oppressions of the Oppressor," A. Karakoc.
1. See also, MEMRI Special Dispatch No. 900, "Antisemitism in the Turkish Media: Part 1," April 28, 2005, http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?Page=arc...a=sd&ID=SP90005
and MEMRI Special Dispatch No. 904, "Antisemitism in the Turkish Media (Part II) - Turkish Intellectuals Against Antisemitism," May 5, 2005, http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?Page=arc...a=sd&ID=SP90405
2. The Great East Islamic Raiders Front (IBDA-C) was established in the mid-1970's by a faction of the youth group of former Turkish prime minister Erbakan's MSP (National Salvation Party), which was outlawed during the 1980 military intervention.
3. The names and phone numbers of the publication's editorial staff appear on the first page.
4. Milli Gazete, February 4, 2005. This daily is affiliated with former PM Erbakan's Islamic movement Milli Gorus, from which current Turkish PM Erdogan and his AK (Justice and Development) Party emerged. On December 28, 2002, columnist Y. Bayer of the mainstream, high circulation Turkish daily Hurriyet wrote: "Did you know that: In 1974, when [Turkish Prime Minister] Tayyip Erdogan was president of the Beyoglu [Istanbul] Youth Group of the [Islamist] MSP [National Salvation Party], he wrote and directed a theatrical play called Maskomya and also played the lead role of the 'bad son?' And that the role of Erdogan's grandmother was performed by a girl from a CHP [the secular, Kemalist Republican People's Party] family, and that the play was staged 10 times despite the complaints of a board member to Erbakan?"
The historian/researcher Rifat N. Bali also commented on Erdogan's play: "Maskomya, or in its correct form Mas-kom-Ya, was a theatrical play that was staged everywhere in the 1970s, as part of the 'cultural' activities of MSP Youth Branches. The unabbreviated version of Mas-kom-Ya is Mason-Komunist-Yahudi [Mason-Communist-Jew]. It is known that the play was built on the 'evil' nature of these three concepts, and the hatred towards them."
5. Ottoman Sultan Abdulhamid II (1842-1918) was dethroned in 1909 by the Young Turks revolution.
6. Ortadogu, February 13, 2005. Ortadogu is a ultra-nationalist Turkish daily close to MHP (Nationalist Movement Party), a coalition partner in former governments.
7. For more on this article, see MEMRI Special Dispatch Series No. 900 (http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?Page=archives&Area=sd&ID=SP90005).
8. Sabah , May 18, 2005.
9. Aksam, June 24, 2004.
10.Once Vatan, December 23, 2004.
11. Aksam, September 12, 2004.
12. Milli Gazete, May 9, 2005.
13. The synagogue is part of an inter-faith project which also includes a mosque and a church, which is being developed in Southeast Turkey to demonstrate tolerance and pluralism in Turkey's history.
14. Milli Gazete, April 13, 2005.
15. Sabah , February 17, 2005.
16. The word 'Jew' in Turkish is Yahudi, and is derogatory. Cifit [pronounced "chee-fut"] means "filthy Jew."
17. The Dönme [Sabbateans] are descendants of the Jewish followers of the self-proclaimed messiah Sabbetai Sevi (1626-1676), who in 1666 was forced by the Sultan to convert to Islam. They consider themselves Muslims and are officially recognized as such. Dönme is the Turkish word for 'convert,' but also carries overtones of 'turncoat.'